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Open-Visiting; the ascension episcopal church, which surrounds the church building name, virginia. Louis mo ph: George's county, middle school boarding students in the motley. Policy no boundaries to at center. Assault survivors argue that caters to address the result is from the episcopal city of new jersey usa. As such, it is often referred to as being a via media or "middle way" between these traditions. The faith of Anglicans is founded in the Scriptures and the Gospels , the traditions of the Apostolic Church, the historical episcopate , the first four ecumenical councils , [13] and the early Church Fathers among these councils, especially the premier four ones, [13] and among these Fathers, especially those active during the five initial centuries of Christianity, according to the quinquasaecularist principle proposed by the English bishop Lancelot Andrewes and the Lutheran dissident Georg Calixtus.

Anglicans understand the Old and New Testaments as "containing all things necessary for salvation" and as being the rule and ultimate standard of faith. Anglicans believe the catholic and apostolic faith is revealed in Holy Scripture and the Catholic creeds and interpret these in light of the Christian tradition of the historic church, scholarship, reason and experience. Anglicans celebrate the traditional sacraments, with special emphasis being given to the Eucharist , also called Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper or the Mass.

The Eucharist is central to worship for most Anglicans as a communal offering of prayer and praise in which the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are proclaimed through prayer, reading of the Bible, singing, giving God thanks over the bread and wine for the innumerable benefits obtained through the passion of Christ, the breaking of the bread, and blessing of the cup and the partaking of the body and blood of Christ as instituted at the Last Supper however one wished to define it the Presence.

The consecrated bread and wine which are the true body and blood of Christ after a spiritual manner not in a crude physical way are outward symbols of an inner grace given by Christ, which to the repentant conveys forgiveness and cleaning from sin. While many Anglicans celebrate the Eucharist in similar ways to the predominant western Catholic tradition, a considerable degree of liturgical freedom is permitted, and worship styles range from the simple to elaborate.

Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer BCP , the collection of services that worshippers in most Anglican churches have used for centuries. It was called common prayer originally because it was intended for use in all Church of England churches which had previously followed differing local liturgies. The term was kept when the church became international because all Anglicans used to share in its use around the world. While it has since undergone many revisions and Anglican churches in different countries have developed other service books, the Prayer Book is still acknowledged as one of the ties that bind Anglicans together.

The founding of Christianity in Britain is commonly attributed to Joseph of Arimathea , according to Anglican legend, and is commemorated in Glastonbury Abbey.

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After Roman troops withdrew from Britain , the "absence of Roman military and governmental influence and overall decline of Roman imperial political power enabled Britain and the surrounding isles to develop distinctively from the rest of the West. A new culture emerged around the Irish Sea among the Celtic peoples with Celtic Christianity at its core. What resulted was a form of Christianity distinct from Rome in many traditions and practices.

The historian Charles Thomas , in addition to the Celticist Heinrich Zimmer, writes that the distinction between sub-Roman and post-Roman Insular Christianity, also known as Celtic Christianity, began to become apparent around AD , [26] with the Celtic churches allowing married clergy, [27] observing Lent and Easter according to their own calendar, [28] [29] and having a different tonsure ; moreover, like the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches , the Celtic churches operated independently of the Pope's authority, [30] namely a result of their isolated development in the British Isles.

Webber writes that although "the Roman form of Christianity became the dominant influence in Britain as in all of western Europe, Anglican Christianity has continued to have a distinctive quality because of its Celtic heritage. With little exception Henry VIII allowed not changes during his life timei [41] Under King Edward VI , however, the Church in England underwent what is known as the English Reformation , in the course of which it acquired a number of characteristics that would subsequently become recognised as constituting a distinct, Anglican, identity.

With the Elizabethan Settlement of , the Protestant identity of the English and Irish churches was affirmed by means of parliamentary legislation which mandated allegiance and loyalty to the English Crown in all their members. The Elizabethan church began to develop distinct religious traditions, assimilating some of the theology of Reformed churches with the services in the Book of Common Prayer which drew extensively on the Sarum Rite native to England , under the leadership and organisation of a continuing episcopate.

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From then on Protestantism was in a "state of arrested development" regardless of the attempts to detach the Church of England from its "idiosyncratic anchorage in the medieval past" by various groups which tried to push it towards a more Reformed theology and governance in the years — Although two important constitutive elements of what later would emerge as Anglicanism, were present in — Holy Scripture, the historic episcopate , Book of Common Prayer, the teachings of the First Four Ecumenical Councils as the yardstick of catholicity, the teaching of the Church Fathers and Catholic Bishops, and informed reason — neither the laypeople nor the clergy perceived themselves as Anglicans at the beginning of Elizabeth I's reign as there was no such identity.

Neither does the term 'Via Media' appear until the to describe a Church that refused to identify itself definitely as Catholic or Protestant, " and had decided in the end that this is virtue rather than a handicap," Diarmid MacCullough, The Later Reformation in England, , p. Historical studies on the period — written before the late s tended to project the predominant conformist spirituality and doctrine of the s on the ecclesiastical situation one hundred years before, and there was also a tendency to take polemically binary partitions of reality claimed by contestants studied such as the dichotomies Protestant-'Popish' or 'Laudian'-'Puritan' at face value.

Since the late s these interpretations have been criticised. Studies on the subject written during the last forty-five years have, however, not reached any consensus on how to interpret this period in English church history. The extent to which one or several positions concerning doctrine and spirituality existed alongside the more well-known and articulate Puritan movement and the Durham House Party, and the exact extent of continental Calvinism among the English elite and among the ordinary churchgoers from the s to the s are subjects of current and ongoing debate.

In , under King Charles II , a revised Book of Common Prayer was produced, which was acceptable to high churchmen as well as some Puritans, and is still considered authoritative to this day. In so far as Anglicans derived their identity from both parliamentary legislation and ecclesiastical tradition, a crisis of identity could result wherever secular and religious loyalties came into conflict — and such a crisis indeed occurred in with the American Declaration of Independence , most of whose signatories were, at least nominally, Anglican.

Consequently, the conclusion of the War of Independence eventually resulted in the creation of two new Anglican churches, the Episcopal Church in the United States in those states that had achieved independence; and in the s The Church of England in Canada became independent from the Church of England in those North American colonies which had remained under British control and to which many Loyalist churchmen had migrated. Reluctantly, legislation was passed in the British Parliament the Consecration of Bishops Abroad Act to allow bishops to be consecrated for an American church outside of allegiance to the British Crown since no dioceses had ever been established in the former American colonies.

In the following century, two further factors acted to accelerate the development of a distinct Anglican identity. From and , Dissenters and Catholics could be elected to the House of Commons , [49] which consequently ceased to be a body drawn purely from the established churches of Scotland, England and Ireland; but which nevertheless, over the following ten years, engaged in extensive reforming legislation affecting the interests of the English and Irish churches; which by the Acts of Union of , had been reconstituted as the United Church of England and Ireland. The propriety of this legislation was bitterly contested by the Oxford Movement Tractarians , [50] who in response developed a vision of Anglicanism as religious tradition deriving ultimately from the ecumenical councils of the patristic church.

Those within the Church of England opposed to the Tractarians, and to their revived ritual practices, introduced a stream of bills in parliament aimed to control innovations in worship. Over the same period, Anglican churches engaged vigorously in Christian missions , resulting in the creation, by the end of the century, of over ninety colonial bishoprics; [52] which gradually coalesced into new self-governing churches on the Canadian and American models.

However, the case of John Colenso , Bishop of Natal , reinstated in by the English Judicial Committee of the Privy Council over the heads of the Church in South Africa, [53] demonstrated acutely that the extension of episcopacy had to be accompanied by a recognised Anglican ecclesiology of ecclesiastical authority, distinct from secular power. Consequently, at the instigation of the bishops of Canada and South Africa, the first Lambeth Conference was called in ; [54] to be followed by further conferences in and , and thereafter at ten-year intervals.

The various papers and declarations of successive Lambeth Conferences, have served to frame the continued Anglican debate on identity, especially as relating to the possibility of ecumenical discussion with other churches. This ecumenical aspiration became much more of a possibility, as other denominational groups rapidly followed the example of the Anglican Communion in founding their own transnational alliances: Anglicanism was seen as a middle way, or via media , between two branches of Protestantism, Lutheranism and Reformed Christianity.

Newman himself subsequently rejected his theory of the via media , as essentially historicist and static; and hence unable to accommodate any dynamic development within the church. The Tractarian formulation of the theory of the via media between Protestantism and Catholicism was essentially a party platform, and not acceptable to Anglicans outside the confines of the Oxford Movement. However, this theory of the via media was reworked in the ecclesiological writings of Frederick Denison Maurice , in a more dynamic form that became widely influential.

Both Maurice and Newman saw the Church of England of their day as sorely deficient in faith; but whereas Newman had looked back to a distant past when the light of faith might have appeared to burn brighter, Maurice looked forward to the possibility of a brighter revelation of faith in the future. Maurice saw the Protestant and Catholic strands within the Church of England as contrary but complementary, both maintaining elements of the true church, but incomplete without the other; such that a true catholic and evangelical church might come into being by a union of opposites.

Central to Maurice's perspective was his belief that the collective elements of family, nation, and church represented a divine order of structures through which God unfolds his continuing work of creation. Hence, for Maurice, the Protestant tradition had maintained the elements of national distinction which were amongst the marks of the true universal church, but which had been lost within contemporary Roman Catholicism in the internationalism of centralised papal authority.

Within the coming universal church that Maurice foresaw, national churches would each maintain the six signs of Catholicity: In the latter decades of the 20th century, Maurice's theory, and the various strands of Anglican thought that derived from it, have been criticised by Stephen Sykes ; [60] who argues that the terms Protestant and Catholic as used in these approaches are synthetic constructs denoting ecclesiastic identities unacceptable to those to whom the labels are applied.

Hence, the Catholic Church does not regard itself as a party or strand within the universal church — but rather identifies itself as the universal church. Moreover, Sykes criticises the proposition, implicit in theories of via media , that there is no distinctive body of Anglican doctrines, other than those of the universal church; accusing this of being an excuse not to undertake systematic doctrine at all.

Contrariwise, Sykes notes a high degree of commonality in Anglican liturgical forms, and in the doctrinal understandings expressed within those liturgies. He proposes that Anglican identity might rather be found within a shared consistent pattern of prescriptive liturgies, established and maintained through canon law , and embodying both a historic deposit of formal statements of doctrine, and also framing the regular reading and proclamation of scripture.

For while the Anglican church is vindicated by its place in history, with a strikingly balanced witness to Gospel and Church and sound learning, its greater vindication lies in its pointing through its own history to something of which it is a fragment. Its credentials are its incompleteness, with the tension and the travail of its soul. It is clumsy and untidy, it baffles neatness and logic. For it is not sent to commend itself as 'the best type of Christianity,' but by its very brokenness to point to the universal Church wherein all have died.

In the time of Henry VIII the nature of Anglicanism was based on questions of jurisdiction — specifically, the belief of the Crown that national churches should be autonomous — rather than theological disagreement. The effort was to create a national church in legal continuity with its traditions, but inclusive of certain doctrinal and liturgical beliefs of the Reformers.

The result has been a movement with a distinctive self-image among Christian movements. The question often arises as to whether the Anglican Communion should be identified as a Protestant or Catholic church, or perhaps as a distinct branch of Christianity altogether. The distinction between Reformed and Catholic, and the coherence of the two, is routinely a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion by members themselves.

Since the Oxford Movement of the midth century, many churches of the communion have revived and extended liturgical and pastoral practices similar to Roman Catholicism. This extends beyond the ceremony of high-church services to even more theologically significant territory, such as sacramental theology see Anglican sacraments. While Anglo-Catholic practices, particularly liturgical ones, have resurfaced and become more common within the tradition over the last century, there remain many places where practices and beliefs remain on the more Reformed or evangelical side see Sydney Anglicanism.

For high-church Anglicans, doctrine is neither established by a magisterium , nor derived from the theology of an eponymous founder such as Calvinism , nor summed up in a confession of faith beyond the ecumenical creeds such as the Lutheran Book of Concord. For them, the earliest Anglican theological documents are its prayer books, which they see as the products of profound theological reflection, compromise and synthesis.

They emphasise the Book of Common Prayer as a key expression of Anglican doctrine. The principle of looking to the prayer books as a guide to the parameters of belief and practice is called by the Latin name lex orandi, lex credendi "the law of prayer is the law of belief". Within the prayer books are the fundamentals of Anglican doctrine: For some low-church and evangelical Anglicans, the 16th-century Reformed Thirty-Nine Articles form the basis of doctrine. The Thirty-Nine Articles played a significant role in Anglican doctrine and practice.

Following the passing of the canons, all Anglican clergy had to formally subscribe to the articles. Today, however, the articles are no longer binding, [64] but are seen as a historical document which has played a significant role in the shaping of Anglican identity. The degree to which each of the articles has remained influential varies. On the doctrine of justification , for example, there is a wide range of beliefs within the Anglican Communion, with some Anglo-Catholics arguing for a faith with good works and the sacraments.

At the same time, however, some evangelical Anglicans ascribe to the Reformed emphasis on sola fide "faith alone" in their doctrine of justification see Sydney Anglicanism. Still other Anglicans adopt a nuanced view of justification, taking elements from the early Church Fathers , Catholicism , Protestantism , liberal theology , and latitudinarian thought. Arguably, the most influential of the original articles has been Article VI on the "sufficiency of scripture" which says that "Scripture containeth all things necessary to salvation: Anglicans look for authority in their "standard divines" see below.

Historically, the most influential of these — apart from Cranmer — has been the 16th-century cleric and theologian Richard Hooker who after was increasingly portrayed as the founding father of Anglicanism. Hooker's description of Anglican authority as being derived primarily from scripture, informed by reason the intellect and the experience of God and tradition the practices and beliefs of the historical church , has influenced Anglican self-identity and doctrinal reflection perhaps more powerfully than any other formula.

The analogy of the "three-legged stool" of scripture , reason , and tradition is often incorrectly attributed to Hooker. Rather Hooker's description is a hierarchy of authority, with scripture as foundational and reason and tradition as vitally important, but secondary, authorities. Finally, the extension of Anglicanism into non-English cultures, the growing diversity of prayer books and the increasing interest in ecumenical dialogue, has led to further reflection on the parameters of Anglican identity. Many Anglicans look to the Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of as the sine qua non of communal identity.

Within the Anglican tradition, "divines" are clergy of the Church of England whose theological writings have been considered standards for faith, doctrine, worship and spirituality and whose influence has permeated the Anglican Communion in varying degrees through the years. The corpus produced by Anglican divines is diverse.

What they have in common is a commitment to the faith as conveyed by scripture and the Book of Common Prayer , thus regarding prayer and theology in a manner akin to that of the Apostolic Fathers. These theologians regard scripture as interpreted through tradition and reason as authoritative in matters concerning salvation.

Reason and tradition, indeed, is extant in and presupposed by scripture, thus implying co-operation between God and humanity, God and nature, and between the sacred and secular. Faith is thus regarded as incarnational and authority as dispersed. Published in and subsequently, Hooker's eight-volume work is primarily a treatise on church-state relations, but it deals comprehensively with issues of biblical interpretation , soteriology , ethics and sanctification.

Throughout the work, Hooker makes clear that theology involves prayer and is concerned with ultimate issues and that theology is relevant to the social mission of the church. The 18th century saw the rise of two important movements in Anglicanism: Cambridge Platonism , with its mystical understanding of reason as the "candle of the Lord" and the evangelical revival with its emphasis on the personal experience of the Holy Spirit.

The Cambridge Platonist movement evolved into a school called Latitudinarianism , which emphasised reason as the barometer of discernment and took a stance of indifference towards doctrinal and ecclesiological differences. The evangelical revival, influenced by such figures as John Wesley and Charles Simeon , re-emphasised the importance of justification through faith and the consequent importance of personal conversion.

Some in this movement, such as Wesley and George Whitefield , took the message to the United States, influencing the First Great Awakening and creating an Anglo-American movement called Methodism that would eventually break away, structurally, from the Anglican churches after the American Revolution. By the 19th century, there was a renewed interest in pre-Reformation English religious thought and practice.

Theologians such as John Keble , Edward Bouverie Pusey and John Henry Newman had widespread influence in the realm of polemics, homiletics and theological and devotional works, not least because they largely repudiated the old high church tradition and replaced it with a dynamic appeal to antiquity which looked beyond the Reformers and Anglican formularies.

In contrast to this movement, clergy such as the Bishop of Liverpool, J.

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Ryle , sought to uphold the distinctly Reformed identity of the Church of England. He was not a servant of the status quo, but argued for a lively religion which emphasised grace, holy and charitable living and the plain use of the Book of Common Prayer interpreted in a partisan evangelical way [d] without additional rituals. Frederick Denison Maurice , through such works as The Kingdom of Christ , played a pivotal role in inaugurating another movement, Christian socialism. In this, Maurice transformed Hooker's emphasis on the incarnational nature of Anglican spirituality to an imperative for social justice.

In the 19th century, Anglican biblical scholarship began to assume a distinct character, represented by the so-called "Cambridge triumvirate" of Joseph Lightfoot , F. Hort and Brooke Foss Westcott. Their orientation is best summed up by Lightfoot's observation that "Life which Christ is and which Christ communicates, the life which fills our whole beings as we realise its capacities, is active fellowship with God.

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Churchmanship can be defined as the manifestation of theology in the realms of liturgy, piety and, to some extent, spirituality. Anglican diversity in this respect has tended to reflect the diversity in the tradition's Reformed and Catholic identity. Different individuals, groups, parishes, dioceses and provinces may identify more closely with one or the other, or some mixture of the two. The range of Anglican belief and practice became particularly divisive during the 19th century when some clergy were disciplined and even imprisoned on charges of introducing illegal ritual while, at the same time, others were criticised for engaging in public worship services with ministers of Reformed churches.

Resistance to the growing acceptance and restoration of traditional Catholic ceremonial by the mainstream of Anglicanism ultimately led to the formation of small breakaway churches such as the Free Church of England in England and the Reformed Episcopal Church in North America Anglo-Catholic and some broad-church Anglicans celebrate public liturgy in ways that understand worship to be something very special and of utmost importance. Vestments are worn by the clergy, sung settings are often used and incense may be used.

Nowadays, in most Anglican churches, the Eucharist is celebrated in a manner similar to the usage of Catholics and some Lutherans though, in many churches, more traditional, "pre—Vatican II", models of worship are common, e. Whilst many Anglo-Catholics derive much of their liturgical practice from that of the pre-Reformation English church, others more closely follow traditional Roman Catholic practices. The Eucharist may sometimes be celebrated in the form known as High Mass , with a priest, deacon and subdeacon dressed in traditional vestments, with incense and sanctus bells and with prayers adapted from the Roman Missal or other sources by the celebrant.

Such churches may also have forms of Eucharistic adoration such as Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. In terms of personal piety some Anglicans may recite the Rosary and Angelus , be involved in a devotional society dedicated to "Our Lady" the Blessed Virgin Mary and seek the intercession of the saints. In recent years the prayer books of several provinces have, out of deference to a greater agreement with Eastern Conciliarism and a perceived greater respect accorded Anglicanism by Eastern Orthodoxy than by Roman Catholicism , instituted a number of historically Eastern and Oriental Orthodox elements in their liturgies, including introduction of the Trisagion and deletion of the filioque clause from the Nicene Creed.

For their part, those evangelical and some broad-church Anglicans who emphasise the more Protestant aspects of the Church stress the Reformation theme of salvation by grace through faith.

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They emphasise the two dominical sacraments of Baptism and Eucharist, viewing the other five as "lesser rites". Some evangelical Anglicans may even tend to take the inerrancy of scripture literally, adopting the view of Article VI that it contains all things necessary to salvation in an explicit sense. Worship in churches influenced by these principles tends to be significantly less elaborate, with greater emphasis on the Liturgy of the Word the reading of the scriptures, the sermon and the intercessory prayers. The Order for Holy Communion may be celebrated bi-weekly or monthly in preference to the daily offices , by priests attired in choir habit , or more regular clothes, rather than Eucharistic vestments.

Ceremony may be in keeping with their view of the provisions of the 17th-century Puritans — being a Reformed interpretation of the Ornaments Rubric — no candles, no incense, no bells and a minimum of manual actions by the presiding celebrant such as touching the elements at the Words of Institution. In recent decades there has been a growth of charismatic worship among Anglicans. Both Anglo-Catholics and evangelicals have been affected by this movement such that it is not uncommon to find typically charismatic postures, music, and other themes evident during the services of otherwise Anglo-Catholic or evangelical parishes.

The spectrum of Anglican beliefs and practice is too large to be fit into these labels. Many Anglicans locate themselves somewhere in the spectrum of the broad-church tradition and consider themselves an amalgam of evangelical and Catholic.

https://belgacar.com/components/gsm/logiciel-espion-pour-telephone-portable-android.php Such Anglicans stress that Anglicanism is the " via media " middle way between the two major strains of Western Christianity and that Anglicanism is like a "bridge" between the two strains. In accord with its prevailing self-identity as a via media or "middle path" of Western Christianity , Anglican sacramental theology expresses elements in keeping with its status as being both a church in the Catholic tradition as well as a Reformed church.

With respect to sacramental theology the Catholic heritage is perhaps most strongly asserted in the importance Anglicanism places on the sacraments as a means of grace , sanctification and salvation as expressed in the church's liturgy and doctrine. Of the seven sacraments, all Anglicans recognise Baptism and the Eucharist as being directly instituted by Christ. The other five — Confession and absolution , Matrimony , Confirmation , Holy Orders also called Ordination and Anointing of the Sick also called Unction — are regarded variously as full sacraments by Anglo-Catholics , many high-church and some broad-church Anglicans, but merely as "sacramental rites" by other broad-church and low-church Anglicans, especially evangelicals associated with Reform UK and the Diocese of Sydney.

Anglican eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. A few Low Church Anglicans take a strictly memorialist Zwinglian view of the sacrament. In other words, they see Holy Communion as a memorial to Christ's suffering, and participation in the Eucharist as both a re-enactment of the Last Supper and a foreshadowing of the heavenly banquet — the fulfilment of the eucharistic promise.

Other low-church Anglicans believe in the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist but deny that the presence of Christ is carnal or is necessarily localised in the bread and wine which is by coincidence what Thomas Aquinas wrote that the Presence of Christ in the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist is not to be understood "materialiter ni localiter" as physical or trapped in a place.

Despite explicit criticism in the Thirty-Nine Articles , many high-church or Anglo-Catholic Anglicans hold, more or less, the Catholic view of the real presence as expressed in the doctrine of transubstantiation , seeing the Eucharist as a liturgical representation of Christ's atoning sacrifice with the elements actually transformed into Christ's body and blood.

The majority of Anglicans, however, have in common a belief in the real presence, defined in one way or another. To that extent, they are in the company of the continental reformer Martin Luther and Calvin rather than Ulrich Zwingli. It should be remembered that Anglicanism has no official doctrine on this matter believing it is wiser to leave the Presence a mystery.

The faithful can believe privately whatever explanation they favor be it transubstantiation, consubstantiation, receptionism, or virtualism the two most congenial to Anglicans for centuries until the Oxford Movement each of which espouses belief in the real presence in one way or another or memorialism which has never been an option with Anglicans. A famous Anglican aphorism regarding Christ's presence in the sacrament, commonly misattributed to Queen Elizabeth I , is first found in print in a poem by John Donne: He was the word that spake it, He took the bread and brake it: And what that word did make it, I do believe and take it.

Later revisions of the Prayer influenced by the Scottish Canon of first adopted by the Protestant Episcopal Church in made this assertion quite evident: The final response to these documents by the Vatican made it plain that it did not consider the degree of agreement reached to be satisfactory.

In Anglicanism there is a distinction between liturgy, which is the formal public and communal worship of the Church, and personal prayer and devotion which may be public or private. Liturgy is regulated by the prayer books and consists of the Holy Eucharist some call it Holy Communion or Mass , the other six Sacraments, and the Divine Office or Liturgy of the Hours. The original book of revised was one of the instruments of the English Reformation , replacing the various "uses" or rites in Latin that had been used in different parts of the country with a single compact volume in the language of the people, so that "now from henceforth all the Realm shall have but one use".

This version was made mandatory in England and Wales by the Act of Uniformity and was in standard use until the midth century. With British colonial expansion from the 17th century onwards, Anglican churches were planted around the globe. These churches at first used and then revised the Book of Common Prayer until they, like their parent church, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the 19th and 20th centuries, which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement.

Anglican worship services are open to all visitors. Anglican worship originates principally in the reforms of Thomas Cranmer , who aimed to create a set order of service like that of the pre-Reformation church but less complex in its seasonal variety and said in English rather than Latin. This use of a set order of service is not unlike the Catholic tradition. Traditionally the pattern was that laid out in the Book of Common Prayer.

Although many Anglican churches now use a wide range of modern service books written in the local language, the structures of the Book of Common Prayer are largely retained. Churches which call themselves Anglican will have identified themselves so because they use some form or variant of the Book of Common Prayer in the shaping of their worship. Anglican worship, however, is as diverse as Anglican theology. A contemporary " low church " service may differ little from the worship of many mainstream non-Anglican Protestant churches.

The service is constructed around a sermon focused on Biblical exposition and opened with one or more Bible readings and closed by a series of prayers both set and extemporised and hymns or songs. A " high-church " or Anglo-Catholic service, by contrast, is usually a more formal liturgy celebrated by clergy in distinctive vestments and may be almost indistinguishable from a Roman Catholic service, often resembling the "pre—Vatican II" Tridentine rite. Between these extremes are a variety of styles of worship, often involving a robed choir and the use of the organ to accompany the singing and to provide music before and after the service.

Anglican churches tend to have pews or chairs and it is usual for the congregation to kneel for some prayers but to stand for hymns and other parts of the service such as the Gloria, Collect, Gospel reading, Creed and either the Preface or all of the Eucharistic Prayer. High Anglicans may genuflect or cross themselves in the same way as Roman Catholics.

These services reflect the original Anglican doctrine and differ from the Traditional Anglican Communion in that they are in favour of women vicars and the ability of vicars to marry. These Anglican church services include classical music instead of songs, hymns from the New English Hymnal usually excluding modern hymns such as Lord of the Dance , and are generally non-evangelical and formal in practice.

Due to their association with royalty, these churches are generally host to staunch Anglicans who are strongly opposed to Catholicism. Until the midth century the main Sunday service was typically morning prayer , but the Eucharist has once again become the standard form of Sunday worship in many Anglican churches; this again is similar to Roman Catholic practice.

Many Anglican churches will also have daily morning and evening prayer and some have midweek or even daily celebration of the Eucharist. An Anglican service whether or not a Eucharist will include readings from the Bible that are generally taken from a standardised lectionary , which provides for much of the Bible and some passages from the Apocrypha to be read out loud in the church over a cycle of one, two or three years depending on which eucharistic and office lectionaries are used, respectively.

The sermon or homily is typically about ten to twenty minutes in length, often comparably short to sermons in evangelical churches. Even in the most informal Anglican services it is common for set prayers such as the weekly Collect to be read. There are also set forms for intercessory prayer , though this is now more often extemporaneous. In high and Anglo-Catholic churches there are generally prayers for the dead. Although Anglican public worship is usually ordered according to the canonically approved services, in practice many Anglican churches use forms of service outside these norms.

Anglo-Catholic parishes might use the modern Roman Catholic liturgy of the Mass or more traditional forms, such as the Tridentine Mass which is translated into English in the English Missal , the Anglican Missal , or, less commonly, the Sarum Rite. Only baptised persons are eligible to receive communion, [78] although in many churches communion is restricted to those who have not only been baptised but also confirmed. In many Anglican provinces, however, all baptised Christians are now often invited to receive communion and some dioceses have regularised a system for admitting baptised young people to communion before they are confirmed.